logoGlobal Energy Interconnection




      Global Energy Interconnection

      Volume 1, Issue 2, Apr 2018, Pages 130-136

      Research on operation and management muti-node model of mega city energy Internet

      Cheng Yao1 ,Zhang Zhang2 ,Jiancheng Yu1 ,Wei Feng3 ,Changxin Zhou1 ,Yiming Han2
      ( 1. State Grid Tianjin Electric Power Company, Tianjin 300010, China , 2. State Grid Tianjin Electric Power Economics Technology Research Institute, Tianjin 300000, China , 3. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US )


      This paper conducts comprehensive analysis about operational characteristics, market value, stakeholders, and operating modes of a megacity energy Internet. An innovating “one platform, two centers, and multiple nodes” operation management model is proposed. The study provides an in-depth explanation of the new operation and management model of the connotation and logical relationship. Building a comprehensive energy service platform, developing an integrated energy dispatch center, a market trading service center, communication, and other parts of the system needed to achieve benefits for all parties is including in the discussion. The proposed new model of operation and management has important guiding significance and reference for the development and construction of energy Internets in megacities.

      1 Introduction

      Accelerated global urbanization, and the influence of resource agglomeration, has resulted in more than 10 million megacities with permanent residents worldwide.This growth drives energy consumption and has serious environmental impacts [1-2].

      The “Internet plus” smart energy action program is planning to promote the development of smart energy and improve the level of green, low-carbon, and intelligent energy development. To effectively and efficiently manage energy use in these emerging megacities, intelligent management must be strengthened, urban management standards must be improved, and Internet-based technologies and big data can be used to improve sciencebased, intelligent energy management [3-4].

      To this end, an urban “energy Internet” is critical [5]. The innovation of an energy Internet that manages operations in megacities will support the development of the energy Internet megacities. And as an important support for the Global Energy Interconnection landing practice, it has an important demonstration effect.

      Past research [6] has established the basic framework,structure, and composition of such an energy Internet.This research [7] has established a model for energy interconnection based on distributed generation. Other research [8] gives four energy Internet characteristics—high renewable energy permeability; non-linear stochastic;multi-source large data; and multi-scale dynamic. Missing from the literature is thorough research on methods of operation and management within an energy Internet for megacities. This paper proposes an innovative “one platform, two centers, and multiple nodes” operation management mode for megacities, based on omnidirectional analysis on operating characteristics, value properties, and stakeholder operation. The primary methods of establishing the new operation management model are discussed in detail.

      2 Analysis of mega cities energy Internet theory

      2.1 Operating characteristics

      Megacities energy Internet consists of urban energy system, regional energy system and user side energy system.

      Compared with the ordinary urban energy system, it presents a big difference. At the level of the city’s urban energy system, the mega cities mainly transfer the power of large clean energy base to the urban power grid through the ultra-high voltage project. In the aspect of regional energy system, large cities focus on the source- network-loadstorage interaction, energy complementary technology,distribution automation and smart grid technology to achieve the rational allocation of large-scale external electricity. At the user side energy system level, megacities involving more intelligent building, intelligent household,car networking, demand side management technology and means to guide the user energy-saving and interaction energy consumption behavior.

      All systems must satisfy certain constraint conditions outlined below[9-10]. By analyzing the energy supply,transportation, distribution, and market value of an energy Internet for megacities, basic rules can be summarized as follows:

      E represents the traditional type of energy supply,g refers to specific energy types;E g (t) refers to supply of energy g at time t; DE represents the supply of distributed generation; h refers to the specific type of distributed power;D Eh (t) refers to supply of energy h at time t;PL oadi (t) refers to traditional load;AL oadj( t)X j (t)refers to the flexible controllable load with dual identity,such as energy storage device, electric vehicle;LLoss (t)refers to energy loss.

      In general, energy networks are tightly coupled together, showing the characteristics of power system realtime dynamic balance, and embodying the characteristics of easy storage and easy conversion in natural gas (cold and hot).

      2.2 Value properties

      Compared with ordinary city, megacities energy Internet broke the barrier in energy supply and consumption, realized the various forms of integrated energy management “horizontal breakthrough”, and free operation from energy production to consumption “vertical breakthrough”.

      By cultivating a large number of commercial cases, the megacities energy Internet has created a variety of business models. Some of these models include construction planning, management, market trading, and user services.Comprehensive energy market transactions also exist in the process of energy production, transportation, and consumption, including Internet-based trading platforms and supporting trading mechanisms.

      The comprehensive market value analysis model includes the following four aspects [11]: the market value of distributed energy, the value of the system, the value of users and the value of social environment. The comprehensive value analysis model can be expressed as:

      W refers to comprehensive value; Vm refers to value earnings corresponding m.

      2.3 Stakeholder operations

      Compared with ordinary cities, the super-large urban energy Internet has a more complete upstream and downstream industry chain, which is the basic condition for stakeholders to form an enterprise alliance and achieve win-win cooperation.

      In order to play the role of leading enterprises as the value center, integrated energy management service providers have emerged. The integrated energy management service provider can be formed by various energy enterprises or formed by the transformation of the most innovative and representative traditional energy enterprises.

      Integrated energy management service providers should also sign comprehensive service agreements with customers, provide customers with comprehensive services, and collect service fees. Members of the enterprise alliance should support integrated energy management service providers. The integrated energy management service provider should sign cooperation framework agreements with members of enterprise alliance and pay them according to the service provided.

      On the basis of value definition in value engineering,the enterprise value can be defined as the relative ratio between the total income of the enterprise and the total cost of realizing income, which is expressed as follows:

      Fi represents enterprise benefit in field i, Ci represents enterprise cost in field i,αi represents weight of Fii represents weight of Ci. Fi and Ci can be obtained from corporate accounting income statement,αiand βiwere given by experts. The greater V value, the greater the role of the corporate alliance would be.

      Recommendations include selecting energy enterprises that have high performance and technical ability to form enterprise alliances, including design companies,material supply enterprises, construction enterprises,financial companies, etc. Another recommendation is to reduce customer energy-related inputs by competing with members of the alliance on the same link in the service chain. Providing more business opportunities for members of the alliance to achieve mutual benefit via cooperation among other members of the alliance is also recommended.

      3 “One platform, two centers and multiple nodes” operation management

      Due to the features that energy transmission and use is more efficient and complex in megacities energy Internet on operating characteristics, the comprehensive energy scheduling is critical. For the features on blend of the planning, operation, trading and service link in megacities energy Internet on value properties, the stable, orderly, and friendly market service is an important guarantee for value mining. For the features of megacities Internet energy stakeholders involved a more comprehensive characteristics of upstream and downstream industry chain, establishing efficient and collaborative operation mode so as to achieve mutual benefit and win-win results of stakeholders is necessary.

      Megacities energy Internet operation management mechanism should satisfy the total value under overall condition is greater than the sum of the value of each subsystem separately produced during operation, which means in the overall operation management mode, each subsystem are played a greater role, which is expressed as follows:

      Ui represents the value of the subsystem in operation management mode, U(i) represents the value that the subsystem brings when it runs alone, U(N) represents the total value produced under the whole operation mode,represents the sum of the value of each subsystem’s operation alone.

      In view of the above characteristics of the energy Internet of mega cities, this paper establishes the operation management mode of “one platform and two center multinodes”, as shown in Fig. 1. The integrated energy service platform provides an integrated energy data sharing platform for the integrated energy dispatch center and market trading service center, and provides an interactive platform for the business communication of multi-node enterprises.

      Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of operation management mode

      Based on the integrated energy service platform, an integrated energy dispatching center and market trading service center are constructed. By analyzing the production and operation data of the energy supply network collected by a integrated energy service platform, and analyzing the diversified data of the energy market, the integrated energy dispatch center optimizes control of the integrated energy flow to achieve improved energy efficiency and guides regional energy transformation.

      On the energy demand side, the market trading service center provides integrated market services with integrated energy trading, energy financial services, and diversity services for customers.

      Accessing the integrated energy service platform,multi-node enterprises are able to realize information interconnection and communication. They also can realize efficient cooperation and mutual benefit through diversified management of multi-type service objects.

      “One platform and two center multi-nodes” operation management model is based on the characteristics of the super-large urban energy Internet, which is the evolution and innovation of the basic urban energy Internet development.

      4 Practice approach analysis

      4.1 Integrated energy service platform

      With the development of the energy Internet for megacities, the function of an integrated energy service platform will be constantly enriched and improved. The business architecture of the integrated energy service platform is shown in Table 1.

      Table 1 Integrated energy service platform business architecture

      Integrated management Enterprise alliance management Product & management Customer management Project management, Operations management Financial management Financing lease, Energy insurance Energy loans, Energy futures Operation management Cluster customer synthesize interactive Power substitution application Control optimization Flexible load control Multi-energy coordination optimization Energy analysis Big data analysis Power quality multidimensional analysis Comprehensive energy efficiency calculation Data interaction Internet data interaction Power data interconnection Data collection means support

      4.2 Integrated energy dispatch center

      The comprehensive energy dispatching center involves many forms of energy, such as electricity, gas, cold and heat. The scheduling objects include conventional power generation equipment, power converter equipment, ground source heat pump, CCHP, energy storage equipment, etc.Based on different seasons and meteorological conditions,the energy forms and sizes of the super-large cities vary from one to the other, and the energy supply equipment and operating conditions of the integrated energy system will be very different. Under all kinds of conditions, the integrated energy dispatch center should be able to meet the safety operation of the energy Internet of super-large cities and use the foreign electricity as the backup of other energy supply equipment.

      Comprehensive energy network optimization scheduling is based on load forecasting and capacity prediction data.This optimizes economics, emissions, and a comprehensive index as the goal, providing the operation scheduling scheme for the comprehensive energy network production system using an intelligent algorithm, and optimal operation plan of cooling, heating and electric system for the next 24 hours. Under different operation modes, comprehensive energy network intelligent dispatch can meet with the smooth operation of energy system in megacities and can draw electricity transmitted to cities as an important energy backup.

      The optimized scheduling module interacts with the outside world through a real-time database. The coordination controller is responsible for communicating with the energy subsystem controller and collecting the real-time information from the energy subsystem. The corresponding plan and remote control instructions are then distributed to the energy subsystem. The schematic diagram of the operation flow of the comprehensive energy network optimization scheduling module is shown in Fig. 2.

      Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the operation flow of the comprehensive energy network optimization scheduling module

      Comprehensive energy scheduling includes load forecasting, capacity prediction, corresponding plan formulation, a distribution plan, control effect tracking, and control scheme analysis.

      1) Load forecasting. Includes cold load prediction,thermal load prediction, electrical load prediction, and hot water load prediction. Provides hourly load forecast data for the following 24 hours as the basis for formulating the corresponding plan.

      2) Capacity prediction. Includes a photovoltaic power generation forecast and a solar air-conditioning capacity forecast. Provides hourly load forecast data for the following 24 hours as the basis for formulating the corresponding plan.

      3) Plan formulation. Supports optimal economy,optimal emission, and optimal comprehensive index, and provides an operation plan for the energy subsystem for the following 24 hours including operations, water supply temperature, and time-to-time ratio plan.

      4) Distribution plan. Delivers corresponding plan to the real-time database.

      5) Control effect tracking. Analyzes and demonstrates actual operations and the corresponding plan for the integrated energy network including an energy efficiency analysis of the energy grid system.

      6) Control scheme analysis. Analyzes and displays the operation cost, energy conservation, and emission reduction and deviation rate of the control plan.

      4.3 Market trading service center

      The market trading service center targets current and potential energy customers. The process provides planning,operational services, supply consulting, systematic optimization, standardization of energy distribution, and service surveys. Customers can achieve the goal of savings,sustained supply, safety, and satisfaction. The whole process service support diagram is shown in Fig. 3.

      In the client project planning stage, the service center helps customers understand customers’ energy needs and make a reasonable energy supply plan.

      In the construction phase, various construction schemes for reliability and economy are provided for users, optimized according to energy demand form and demand. To provide customers with more comprehensive and accurate data support, 4G technology has been adopted.

      Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of “4S-4S” customer service support system

      In the customer energy supply stage, customers are provided with different types of “package” services for different users and choices for the best services according to their own needs. This allows them to build a one-stop and integrated trading platform to reduce the transaction cost of customers in the process of energy consumption.

      In the maintenance stage, the center ensures the safety and reliability of customers’ energy supply by providing clients with agency maintenance services. At the same time, using collected energy consumption data, the center provides users with an analysis of energy saving and loss,as well as the value-added services of data information such as energy optimization management.

      It should be pointed out that the integrated trading platform built at the customer power stage is the core business of market services. Market trading service center can guarantee energy free trade between customers, and all trading results should pass security check conducted by comprehensive power dispatching center.

      4.4 Multi-node enterprises

      On the basis of this proposed “one platform and two centers” model, multi-node enterprises are assisted in realizing mutual benefit and win-win cooperation between energy customers and members of the enterprise alliance.The model of multi-node enterprise win-win cooperation is shown in Fig. 4.

      Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of multi-node win-win cooperation

      Node enterprise in the industry chain includes equipment installation and maintenance, equipment manufacturers,financial institutions, energy distribution companies,distributed energy production and energy providers, data resources, hardware providers, and software providers, etc.

      On the basis of an integrated energy service platform,energy industry-related node enterprises take advantage of their respective data advantages, management advantages,technological advantage, and brand advantage to provide customers with a comprehensive energy plan, feasibility study, financing, design, procurement, construction,commissioning, operations, maintenance, and evaluation of the whole life cycle of services. This improves the economy, safety, and reliability of customer-integrated energy and drives the business operation of each node enterprise, expanding the business space of the enterprise at the same time. In this way, energy customers and members of the enterprise alliance can form a strong collaboration,as shown in Fig. 5.

      According to practical experience, the number of enterprises connected to the integrated energy service platform and the number of users can not be less than 30 in order to realize the efficient operation of the enterprise alliance. In addition, a win-win cooperation mechanism also requires the participation of governments in order to make better use of social benefits on the basis of creating value.

      Fig. 5 Schematic diagram of stakeholder operations based on integrated energy service platform

      5 Conclusion

      The innovative “one platform, two centers, and multiple nodes” operation management model requires attention to three parts of an urban energy Internet: the technical implementation, project planning, and the commercial value. In terms of technical implementation,key technologies of integrated energy application are supported by the establishment of unified scheduling rules and collaborative operation mechanism. In terms of the provision of project, energy transformation and reelectrification are emphasized, and the design of electrical energy alternative should be strengthened to provide energy packages for the demand side. In terms of commercial value, expand the access service scope of integrated energy service platform to realize the maximization of value in a larger scale.

      An integrated energy service platform is the foundation of an Internet operation management system for megacities.At the same time, as a basis of energy data sharing platform of integrated energy dispatch center and market trading service center, an interactive platform for multiple node enterprise business communication plays significant roles.The operation management model proposed in this paper would greatly support the development of an energy Internet for megacities.


      This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFB0900500, 2016YFB0900905).


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      Fund Information

      supported by the National Key R&D Program of China(2016YFB0900500,2016YFB0900905);

      supported by the National Key R&D Program of China(2016YFB0900500,2016YFB0900905);


      • Cheng Yao

        ChengYao received his master degree of Electrical Engineering from North China Electric Power University, China, 2011. He is currently an engineer at State Grid Tianjin Electric Power Company, Tianjin, China.His Major research areas include energy internet, intellectual distribution & utilization technology and demonstration project construction.

      • Zhang Zhang

        ZhangZhang received his master degree of Electrical Engineering from Tian Jin University, Tianjin, China, 2013. He is currently an engineer at State Grid Tianjin Electric Power Economics Technology Research Institute. His Major research areas include Urban energy Internet and Distribution network planning.

      • Jiancheng Yu

        Jiancheng Yu received his Ph.D. degree of Technical economy and management from Tian Jin University in 2006. He is a member of the National Standardization Committee of Micro Grid, Ministry of industry and information technology China information promotion alliance electric power committee, National digital city professional committee smart grid committee, etc. He is also currently a professor of engineer at State Grid Tianjin Electric Power Company. His Major research areas include energy internet,intellectual distribution & utilization technology and demonstration project construction.

      • Wei Feng

        Wei Feng,USA, he received his Ph.D. degree of Mechanical engineering from Syracuse University, USA, 2010. He is a member of ASHRAE. He is currently a professor at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,USA. His Major research areas include distributed energy and micro grid and energyefficient buildings.

      • Changxin Zhou

        Changxin Zhou received his master degree of Industrial and Commercial Management from The University of Sheffield, UK, 2003. He is currently a senior engineer at State Grid Tianjin Electric Power Company. His Major research areas include energy internet,intellectual distribution & utilization technology and demonstration project construction.

      • Yiming Han

        Yiming Han is currently a senior engineer at State Grid Tianjin Electric Power Economics Technology Research Institute. He is an expert in the field of energy Internet and energy economics. He presided over a series of major projects, and he has been awarded the China electric power science and technology award and the state grid corporation’s science and technology progress award many times.

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      Reference: Cheng Yao,Zhang Zhang,Jiancheng Yu,et al.(2018) Research on operation and management muti-node model of mega city energy Internet.Global Energy Interconnection,1(2):130-136.

      (Editor Ya Gao)
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